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How to handle the unexpected

Thanks to a french blog, I just discovered that python allow you to handle the unexecpected python errors.
It is called "excepthook" and it is a must have in a studio framework !
So I urged myself to put a routine into the of anyone in the studio that starts Maya or MotionBuilder:

import sys

def handleCrash(_ErrorType, _Value, _TraceBack):
  """ do your stuff """
  sys.__excepthook__(_ErrorType, _Value, _TraceBack) #as Sam says, be polite.

sys.excepthook = handleCrash
With that, you can send you an email with a HTML-formated text, with all the details, but be careful about the possible lag when sending email.
My best guest right now is to insert an sql request into a debug.db file using sqlite3.
With a little additional efforts (or a database reading app), you can track anything happening in the studio.
My advice is to get exact time, the user name, machine name and its opened-file's name to fill the logging.
Here is the final snippet:

import sys

def handleCrash(_ErrorType, _Value, _TraceBack):
  import traceback
  import sys
  import datetime
  import os

  UserName = os.getenv('USERNAME')
  MachineName = os.getenv('COMPUTERNAME')

  FileName = "" # could be, regarding your current environment,

  HtmlBuffer+="UNEXPECTED:"+str(_ErrorType) +" ==> "+ str(_Value)+"<br>"
  HtmlBuffer+= UserName+" on "+MachineName+"<br>"
  HtmlBuffer+= "on File ="+FileName+"<br>"

  dt =
  DateNiceName = dt.strftime("%A, %d. %B %Y %I:%M%p")
  HtmlBuffer+= "At "+DateNiceName+"<br>"

  formatted_lines = traceback.format_tb(_TraceBack)
  for cur in  formatted_lines:

  #do your stuff

  sys.__excepthook__(_ErrorType, _Value, _TraceBack)

sys.excepthook = handleCrash

By the way, in Maya you will find that some of your errors will not be caught by that system.
Cyrille Fauvel wrote about that in the awesome "Around the corner" dev blog.
import maya.utils

def handleCrash_Maya(etype, value, tb, detail=2):
handleCrash(etype, value, tb)
  return maya.utils._formatGuiException(etype, value, tb, detail)

maya.utils.formatGuiException = handleCrash_Maya

PS: Coming back from GDC2013, I attended to an awesome conference called "Spend Time Where it Matters: Friction Free Bug Reporting" by Raphael Saint-Pierre (Ubisoft) , talking about auto-BugReporting.
I learned here a very great tips to identify and index a bug into a database without creating some clones of similar ones everytime a new occurence pop. How ? Very easy: give an Id coming from a hash of the call stack ! Tested... and approved !


How to batch Motionbuilder: FBX SDK to the rescue.

When I suddently discovered that MotionBuilder does not have a batch mode, I fainted, as I consider doing my job is half the time coding batch tools.

As a reminder, the Batch version of a software is the access of this one in command-line; means without interfaces, but more importantly it is also scriptable so you can process infinite auto-tasks management with it.
Maya comes with a mayabatch.exe, and xsi has its xsibatch.exe, but you can just start MotionBuilder.exe with a -console flag, which allow you having an external output, nothing really fancy.
This is a real issue here: How can building a python framework, multi-environment, and keep tools doing full-auto pipeline processes.
Thankful to Autodesk policy, they gave us a solution : FBX SDK.

  • Explanations:

FBX SDK is written in c++, but hopefully Autodesk managed to wrapped it with SWIG to propose a binding python (if the link is dead, try a search with fbx sdk python binding in Area)
The full doc is actually here, but it is the c++ one. Do not worry about it, python equivalent are found easily (remember dir statement).

So, Is this another environement to my framework: FBX ? Not quite.
We are still in standalone python, but we are using a library to PARSE a file format.
As Maya uses .MA as a 3d structure of succession of MEL Commands, and .MB as a binay, FBX provides both ascii and binary, but ascii fbx are very hard to parse.
FBX SDK help you to read, modify and save any file of FBX, but require only python, ANY python installed on your computer.
For example, I use FBX SDK to open, read, and manage a fbx file, running into a mayabatch.exe (and its mayapy python).
You can also used FBX SDK into MotionBuilder UI, but that is REALLY the snake eating its own tail !

  • Several snippets:

Here I share with you several usefull snippets:

def getHandle(_FilePath):
  import PyFBX
  import PyFBX.fbx

  lSdkManager = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxSdkManager.Create()
  ios = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxIOSettings.Create(lSdkManager, PyFBX.fbx.IOSROOT)
  lImporter = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxImporter.Create(lSdkManager, "")
  lImporter.Initialize(_FilePath, -1, lSdkManager.GetIOSettings())
  MobuFileHandle = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxScene.Create(lSdkManager, "myScene")
  return MobuFileHandle

If you use that to parse a lot of files, be really sure to free the RAM from
.Import here will literally copy the file into the RAM of your computer, and as the reference is still alive, the garbage collector will not free the RAM.
My advice here is to explicitly calling lSdkManager.Destroy() and recreate a fileHandle from scratch every time you switch from a file to another.

def saveAs(_FBXHandle, _FilePath):
  import PyFBX
  import PyFBX.fbx
  import os.path
  lSdkManager = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxSdkManager.Create()
  ios = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxIOSettings.Create(lSdkManager,PyFBX.fbx.IOSROOT)
  lExporter = PyFBX.fbx.KFbxExporter.Create(lSdkManager,"")
  res = lExporter.Export(_FBXHandle)

  if res and os.path.exists(_FilePath):
    print("File was exported succesfully at ="+_FilePath)

Remember how Motionbuilder manage their types of objects in Navigator Models aside, and all objects ordered by types?
Same thing here in FBX, everything is stored by types first, and you have a Method of Scene for everyone:
Finally, notice how most of them are only accessible with an index, GetCharacter, GetControlSetPlug, GetCharacterPose, GetPose , GetMaterial, GetTexture, GetVideo
Here are some snippets for parsing:

def getVideoFiles(_Scene):
  for currentIdx in range(_Scene.GetVideoCount()):
    VideoList.append( _Scene.GetVideo(currentIdx).GetFileName() )
  return VideoList

def getMaterials(_Scene):
  for currentIdx in range(_Scene.GetMaterialCount()):
    MaterialList.append( _Scene.GetMaterial(currentIdx) )
  return MaterialList

def getTextures(_Scene):
  for currentIdx in range(_Scene.GetTextureCount()):
    TextureList.append( _Scene.GetTexture(currentIdx) )
  return TextureList

def getChildren(_Node):
  for currentIdx in range(_Node.GetChildCount()):
    ChildrenList.append( _Node.GetChild(currentIdx) )
  return ChildrenList

So you can easily explore the graph of a top node:

def getAllNodes(_TopNode):
  import PyFBX
  import PyFBX.fbx

  def recurseExplore(currentNode):
    print currentNode.GetTypeName(), currentNode.GetName()

    for i in range(currentNode.GetChildCount()):
      cur = currentNode.GetChild(i)

  return theNodeList
fd = getHandle(r"\\...\Your\Path\FileName.fbx")
test = getAllNodes(fd.GetRootNode())

  • Avoiding traps and shortcuts:

Finally, you can of course look for a specific property.
You have in the doc all the methods for getting rotation or translation in Nodes.
Here is some snippets to get a value of a property by name, for example your own custom ones.

#currentNode= fd.GetRootNode()
value = currentNode.FindProperty(_PropertyName).Get()

But be very careful about not mixing both SDK in your mind!
FBX is NOT Motionbuilder, and experienced python coders in Mobu will find some similarities, but it differs a lot.
For example, forget about .Data member of a node to get its value, but use .Get() method.

Precisely, python in Mobu is called "Open Reality SDK" and is not FBX SDK, but the python package name in mobu, pyfbsdk, can be really confusing (FB prefix comes from FilmBox).
Here are some others examples:

if type(currentNode) == PyFBX.fbx.KFbxNode:
  value = currentNode.Translation.Get()
  print type(value), type(value[0]),value[0]
#<class 'fbx.fbxDouble3'> <type 'float'> 0.0
  value = currentNode.GetPreRotation(0)
  print type(value), value, value[0]
#<class 'fbx.KFbxVector4'> fbx.KFbxVector4(0.000000, 0.000000, 0.000000, 1.000000) 0.0

  • The bright and dark sides

You can open the scenes quickly, automatically.
You can safely open/close a lot of files like this.

I encountered some issues while saving cleaned file, so be sure to increment and not overwrite (as usual of course!)
You cannot blast, cannot plot, etc. ; well basically, you are not in mobu, nor using pyfbsdk module, but you can go very far (edit keys for example)

In my present experience with MotionBuilder, I used FBX SDK to:

- Scan all characters assets to parse a specific PreRotation joint value.
- Scan all scenes to list their content, sync it with asset management system.
- Done some stats about the artists worked, draw dependencies graph and find obsolete assets.


APyTA_17 : OBJECT Part III = Static tactics

APyTA_17 : OBJECT Part III = Static tactics


Illustation of Lesson APYTA#17:

Well, this snippet is just a more elaborate version of the latest post, about creating an object-oriented skeleton:
Because my credo here is to illustrate how objects is all about meaning, giving sense (and some reality) to our lines of code, I propose here to add some arguments to give some consistence to our skeleton, a little how we create a character in role playing game^^. So, this is my prototype of my Avatar creation:

def __init__(self, _Name="DefaultName", _Age=30, _Size=1.70, _Sex=eSexe.kFemale, _NbArm=2, _NbLeg=2, _hasTail=False):

See how we are dealing with real stuff, and also giving more flexibility than previous snippet.

By the way, you have now to discover another concept, static members and methods.
I talked previously how a class is instantiated into a variable: myInstance = myClass().
The instance will benefits to all members and methods (functions) bound to the self keyword in class definition.

Well sometimes you don't want to bind members to instances. You want a variable to be linked to the scope of the class itself !
These are called static members and static methods, and examples are explained bellow.
Again, rather than cutting the long snippet, I placed my comments through the lines inside the code itself:

import math
import maya.OpenMaya
import pymel.core
import maya.cmds

maya.cmds.currentUnit(linear='m')  # Unless you're a gridsnap-lover, I prefer working with meter units that make more sense for me.

class eSexe():
    """ An enumeration of all sex status """
    (kMale, kFemale) = ("Male",  "Female")  # This snippet is useful when you want to manage an very simple-object with several enumeration (as struct in c)

class Avatar(object):  # Also when desribing your mother-of-all class, always inherit from the python class-object (you will benefits of some built-ins)
    """ This object is a rigged-skeleton representation of a character """
    NbSpine = 8  # Arbitrary, we decide that all spinal chain will have 8 joints. So it is in a static Member of Avatar class.
    HipsRatio = 0.4  # Percentage of hips height. Arbitrary also !

    def __init__(self, _Name="DefaultName", _Age=30, _Size=1.70, _Sex=eSexe.kFemale, _NbArm=2, _NbLeg=2, _hasTail=False):
        self.Age = _Age  # With age,  bones are stacked and incurved,  int ,  in years
        self.Size = _Size  # How tall it is. Float,  in meters
        self.Sex = _Sex  # Sexe influence Hips Width and Shoulder width

        self.LimbList = []   # Limb Lists
        self.ArticulationList = []   # All Joints Lists
        self.Hips = None  # Quick Access shortcut
        self.NeckBase = None  # Quick Access shortcut

        self._createTrunk()  # We can call an method into the inialisation process of our Avatar instance.

        ArmLength = self.NeckBase.getTranslation(space='world').y - self.Hips.getTranslation(space='world').y
        for i in range(_NbArm):
            angle = (float(i) / float(_NbArm)) * 2 * math.pi
            RelativePosition = maya.OpenMaya.MVector(math.cos(angle), 0, math.sin(angle))
            newArm = Arm(chr(65 + i), self.NeckBase, RelativePosition * Limb.getGenderOffset(Arm, self.Sex), ArmLength)  # Here we create a new instance of class Arm, and Arm-Object.
            newArm.createIK()  # Notice here we call the method from the newly created instance. For Leg it is done differently.

        for i in range(_NbLeg):
            angle = (float(i) / float(_NbLeg)) * 2 * math.pi
            RelativePosition = maya.OpenMaya.MVector(math.cos(angle),  0,  math.sin(angle))
            newLeg = Leg(chr(65 + i), self.Hips,  RelativePosition * Limb.getGenderOffset(Leg, self.Sex))  # Notice also the call of a static-method of class Limb.

        if _hasTail:
            self.LimbList.append(Tail(self.Hips, 10, 2))

        RootLocator =, 1, 0), center=(0, 0, 0), radius=0.5)[0]
        pymel.core.annotate(RootLocator, text=str(_Name), point=(0, 0, 0.5))
        pymel.core.parent(self.Hips, RootLocator)

    def _createTrunk(self):
        """ Will create the trunk of the body """
        HipsPos = maya.OpenMaya.MVector(0, self.Size * Avatar.HipsRatio, 0)  # Notice here the use of static member of Avatar, treat that like a constant value.
        SpineOffset = (self.Size - HipsPos.y) / float(Avatar.NbSpine)
        SenescenceOffset = float(self.Age) / 100.0  # Factor of spine curve due to age (Cheating because Height is conserved)
        SenescenceOffset *= 0.01

        for increment in range(Avatar.NbSpine):
     # We do not want Maya to create fuzzy stuff with active selection. So before each creation we clear the selection.
            currrentArticulation = pymel.core.nodetypes.Joint(name="Spine_" + str(increment + 1).zfill(2))
            currrentArticulation.setTranslation(maya.OpenMaya.MVector(0,  HipsPos.y + increment * SpineOffset, (increment ** 2) * SenescenceOffset))

            if self.ArticulationList:  # Not the first joint, we have to connect it to the previous one...
                pymel.core.connectJoint(currrentArticulation,  self.ArticulationList[-1],  parentMode=True)  # Remember,  -1 is the index of the last member of a list.
                self.Hips = currrentArticulation

            if increment == Avatar.NbSpine - 2:  # The last two bones are Neck and Head, so Arms takes their root from bellow.
                self.NeckBase = currrentArticulation


class Limb(object):
    def __init__(self, _Name):
        self.ArticulationList = []  # Same name as in Avatar member, but 'self.' indicates the ownership of this class instance. We're deadling with two very different variables so.
        self.Name = _Name
        self.Effector = None  # Every Limb MUST have an effector. But right now it is purely virtual. The member will be set when Ik will be constructed.

    def getGenderOffset(_Limb, _Sex):  # Notive there is no 'self' first argument.
        """ Static Method that return offset of Base position for given Limb """
        if _Limb is Arm:  # Notice also the first expected argument here is the class itself, not one of their instances: That's where is operator fit better than ==
            if _Sex == eSexe.kFemale:
                return 0.25
            elif _Sex == eSexe.kMale:  # Male have larger shoulder...
                return 0.3
        elif _Limb is Leg:
            if _Sex == eSexe.kFemale:  # Male have larger hips...
                return 0.3
            elif _Sex == eSexe.kMale:
                return 0.25
            raise  # Unknown Limb ! (Not the purpose here but why not raise a custom Exception... as a new class of course)

class Arm(Limb):
    NbArticulation = 3  # We iterate through a max joint define in the class member, not the instance member. It is call a static member. Useful for storing scoped-constants and convert factor.

    def __init__(self, _Name, _NeckBase,  _Offset, _Length):
        super(Arm, self).__init__("Arm_" + _Name)  # Inheritance in python is not automatic. Super (Mother) class of Arm is Limb, and its methods are callable form Arm instance, but it needs the keywords super to do that.
        LastPosition = _NeckBase.getTranslation(space='world')

        for i in range(Arm.NbArticulation):
            currentArticulation = pymel.core.nodetypes.Joint(name=self.Name + "_" + str(i + 1).zfill(2))
            NewPosition = LastPosition + _Offset * (_Length / float(Arm.NbArticulation))
            if not self.ArticulationList:  # The first arm joint must be connected to the Base.
                pymel.core.connectJoint(currentArticulation,  _NeckBase,  parentMode=True)
                pymel.core.connectJoint(currentArticulation,  self.ArticulationList[-1],  parentMode=True)
            LastPosition = NewPosition

    def createIK(self):
        result = pymel.core.ikHandle(name=self.Name + "_IKEffector", startJoint=self.ArticulationList[0], endEffector=self.ArticulationList[-1],  solver=pymel.core.nodetypes.IkSCsolver)
        self.Effector = result[0]  # Filling Limb inherited member with the newly created effector.

class Leg(Limb):
    NbArticulation = 3

    def __init__(self, _Name, _HipsBase,  _Offset):
        super(Leg, self).__init__("Leg_" + _Name)
        BasePosition = _HipsBase.getTranslation(space='world')
        previouslyCreated = _HipsBase
        for i in range(0, Leg.NbArticulation):
            currentArticulation = pymel.core.nodetypes.Joint(name=self.Name + "_" + str(i + 1).zfill(2))

            if(previouslyCreated == _HipsBase):  # First joint
                currentArticulation.setTranslation(BasePosition + _Offset, space='world')
                InverseLerp = (1 - (i / float(Arm.NbArticulation - 1)))   # Lerp is the transpose of a range FROM [min = >max] TO [0 = >1]   # Arm.NbArticulation-1 because we do not care about the first Articulation
                currentArticulation.setTranslation(maya.OpenMaya.MVector(previouslyCreated.getTranslation(space='world').x, previouslyCreated.getTranslation(space='world').y * InverseLerp, previouslyCreated.getTranslation(space='world').z), space='world')

            pymel.core.connectJoint(currentArticulation,  previouslyCreated,  parentMode=True)
            previouslyCreated = currentArticulation
        self.createIK()  # Instead of Arm, here we decided that it is into the __init__ process to create IK, so we call the methods from here.

    def createIK(self):
        result = pymel.core.ikHandle(name=self.Name + "_IKEffector", startJoint=self.ArticulationList[0], endEffector=self.ArticulationList[-1],  solver=pymel.core.nodetypes.IkSCsolver)  # IkRPsolver TOASK
        self.Effector = result[0]
        return result[0]

class Tail(Limb):
    def __init__(self,  _HipsBase,  _NbSubdiv, _Size=1):
        super(Tail, self).__init__("Tail")
        BasePosition = _HipsBase.getTranslation(space='world')
        for i in range(1, _NbSubdiv):
            currentArticulation = pymel.core.nodetypes.Joint(name="Tail_" + str(i + 1).zfill(2))
            offSet = i / float(_NbSubdiv)
            currentArticulation.setTranslation(maya.OpenMaya.MVector(BasePosition.x, BasePosition.y, BasePosition.z - (offSet * _Size)),  space='world')
            if not self.ArticulationList:  # The first arm joint must be connected to the Base.
                pymel.core.connectJoint(currentArticulation, _HipsBase,  parentMode=True)
                pymel.core.connectJoint(currentArticulation, self.ArticulationList[-1],  parentMode=True)

    def createSplineIK(self):
        pymel.core.ikHandle(name="TailIKEffector", startJoint=self.ArticulationList[0], endEffector=self.ArticulationList[-1],  solver=pymel.core.nodetypes.IkSplineSolver)

JohnDoe = Avatar("John Doe", _Sex=eSexe.kMale)
TentacleMonster = Avatar("Weirdo", _Size=2.5, _NbArm=5, _NbLeg=3)
GrandMaMouse = Avatar("Grand'Ma Mouse", _Size=1.2, _Age=86, _hasTail=True)

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APyTA_14: Most used modules, Exp Files management.

APyTA_14: Most used modules, Exp Files management.

The os module, for Operating System, is a module that helps you deal with your filesystem.
A sub-module, called os.path, will be dedicated to the path resolving and manipulation. and

You will see in the os doc a lot of low-level functions, because python handle very well the kernel of the file system.
But we do not need that depth, often so let's have a look first about how dealing with files easily:

FILEPATH_ASSTRING=r"F:\PythonCourses\PYTHON_TEST01.txt" #For this test please enter here a path where you have the right to create files.
myFile = open(FILEPATH_ASSTRING,'w')
print type(myFile)#<type 'file'>  Another python object, called a File Descriptor
print open(FILEPATH_ASSTRING,'r').readlines() #returned as a list of string (lines)
#['line1\n', 'line2\n', 'line3\n'] (to check use REAL notepad, like notepad++, forget the crappy one in windows)

Manage a file with the open built-in function, giving a path (remember the string format for path).
Your variable will not be the string stream, it is an handle, a file - descriptor. Take that object like a cursor into your text editor.
Notice also the second argument. You can open a file in ONE MODE ONLY. 'w' is for write, and if anything in the path already exists, it will purely vanish into the warp !
So be very careful in which mode you have to deal with your file ('w' is write, 'r' for read, 'a' for append).

I hardly show you a full example here, because it will require involving your filesystem, so let's enumerate the most useful functions:
os.mkdir(path) #Create the directory at path (but the sub-path must exist)
os.makedirs(path)#Create the directory at path, and create all parent folder if the sub-path does not exist !
os.rename(OldNamePath, NewNamePath) #Rename the file (but can not change its path).
os.listdir(path) #Get all direct children of current Folder. Could be files or sub-folders !
os.remove(path) #Delete a file, do not work if path is a directory!
os.rmdir(path) #This remove a directory, but only if it is empty
os.chmod(path,mode) #Change the attribute of the file at path (use to put a file in read-only)
os.chown(path, uid, gid) #Change the owner of the file at path (give it to root for example).

import os,os.path
print os.environ #Will display all you need to know about your current machine (USERNAME,COMPUTERNAME,USERDOMAIN, etc.)
myTempFolder = os.environ['TEMP'] #For me it is : 'C:\\Users\\Username\\AppData\\Local\\Temp'
if not os.path.exists(myTempFolder):
for currentItem in os.listdir(myTempFolder):
  if os.path.isfile(myTempFolder+"\\"+currentItem): #Warning currentItem is JUST the file name.
    print currentItem

The os.path module is a tool to analyze the string as a path one, and the exists function is really mandatory to safely consider the file or dir.
FILEPATH_ASSTRING=r"F:\PythonCourses\PYTHON_TEST01.txt" #remember the r to express the string as RAW ?
os.path.exists(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: True #
os.path.basename(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: PYTHON_TEST01.txt #
os.path.dirname(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: F:\PythonCourses #Returned value is full path of the directory!
os.path.getsize(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: 18L #  In Bytes
os.path.isdir(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: False #
os.path.splitdrive(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: ('F:', '\\PythonCourses\\PYTHON_TEST01.txt') #
os.path.splitext(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: ('F:\\PythonCourses\\PYTHON_TEST01', '.txt') #
os.path.splitunc(FILEPATH_ASSTRING) # Result: ('', 'F:\\PythonCourses\\PYTHON_TEST01.txt') #   The first tuple will be the start of a UNC path like \\ServerName\...

If you want to copy a file very easily, use the shutil module which can do that for you:

import shutil
shutil.copy(SourcePath, DestinationPath) #Copy the file from source to destination
shutil.copy2(SourcePath, DestinationPath) #Idem, but also copy the stat ! (owner, creation date, etc.) A perfect clone!
shutil.copytree(SourcePath, DestinationPath) #Can duplicate recursively a whole filesystem hierarchy.

At last, but not least, os.walk is a very powerful function to explore recursively your filesystem.
Here is the snippet:

rootdir = os.environ['TEMP']
for root, subFolders, files in os.walk(rootdir):
  for currentFile in files:
    fileList.append(os.path.join(root,currentFile)) #You can use os.path.join instead of the operator +"/"+
import pprint
pprint.pprint(fileList) #Lots of crap right ?

APyTA_13: Most used modules, Diving into the system

APyTA_13: Most used modules, Diving into the system
Let's talk about the most famous modules.
Theses are not external, they comes as built-in into your python, all you have to do to start playing with them is an import.

pprint (pretty print) is a very handy module to replace the standard print.
Use it when you need a visual feedback on a variable that is a dictionary, or some nested lists.

The module sys (for system) is a module very helpful to prompt python about itself and its mechanics.
We already view the sys.path which return a string list of all the filesystem directory where python will look for when importing.
You can nicely browse all the modules in ram with .modules (example given with pprint):

import sys
import pprint

Another cool feature of this module is the getsizeof function.
Managing HUGE collections of datas ? Big batch loops ? Well then, keep track of what you are really storing.

import sys
sys.getsizeof("a") #41
sys.getsizeof("") #40
sys.getsizeof(None) #16  So None is 2.5 lighter than an empty list, see what I mean ?
sys.getsizeof(False) #24

Sys help also to manipulate its own buffer stream. Python have a three level of buffer : standard In, Out, and Error (coming from linux world).
For us, what is matter is just standard output (error is the same thing), and that we can redirect it:

userInput = #This just open a prompt
print userInput
sys.stdout.write("This is standard output") #See ? Like a print, but without the newline
sys.stderr.write("This is standard error")

sys.stdout = open("F:\PythonCourses\MayaBuffer.txt",'w') #Insert here an already exsisting file
sys.stdout.write("This is standard output") #Nothing is printed in the Maya script editor !

Notice that the file will not be readable instantaneously, but will be flushed when Maya is closed (or if you close it intentionally with .close() ).
We will see above a better way to log your infos. Eventually, know that you also can access to the starting buffer, initialized at python launch.
But now let's have a look at sys.__stdout__ which is a recorded value of default output for printing at python startup.
This helps that a lot because by default it is the output window of Maya ! (Which have better performance, and can isolate your verbosity from usual commands feedback):

sys.__stdout__.write("I am written in Output window, and I like that.")

I use the module time when I need to name my unique files, or when I upload tracking into the Asset Manager.

import time
print time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d") #2012-05-26
print time.strftime("%H:%M:%S") #12:45:47
print time.strftime("%YY-%mM-%dD_%Hh%Mm%Ss") #2012Y-05M-26D_12h46m07s  This is how I format the time personally

The module logging is dedicated to help you keeping trace of your outputs, and I recommend heavily to do that.
CGI Applications crashes. It happens. You need to keep a log of what the user was doing, that is on top of the application. In a file.
It help you a lot, in AGILE development, when frequently users ask you to come to their desk for an "error".
What error ? They do not read it, or they forgot. But the log know.
And you will not have to reproduce the manipulation (which often requires loading a huge file).

import time
#Setuping of the logger:
import logging
logger = logging.getLogger('ToolName')
LogFileFullPath = LOG_FOLDER+"\\"+time.strftime("%YY-%mM-%dD")+'.log' #I record a log in a daily file
logFileHandle = logging.FileHandler(LogFileFullPath)
logFileHandle.setLevel(logging.DEBUG) #This Level could be change in a menu of yours, if the users wants to be in "quiet mode" for example (speed up huge ierations).
formatter = logging.Formatter('%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s') #This is how you setup the prefix of all your lines.
#Example of usage:"This is a normal message") #Use that for classic feedback, resolved variables.
logger.warn("This is a warning message") #Use when something is wrong but the process can continue. Show must go on.
logger.error("This is an ERROR !") #Ok, this is Unexpected context, a non-sense argument. You can not continue. Function will stop and user must know it.
logger.critical("This is the end of the WORLD!!!") #Without the feature in scope (connection to the DB, internet acess for examples), the tool is USELESS. Please contact your administrator and give him a coffee.
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APyTA_12: Handling exceptions, just in case

APyTA_12: Handling exceptions, just in case

Let's see now, how python will help you to manage errors and failure! Yes it can do that too!
try #Test if the next instruction is valid
except #Coupled with try, create a scope in case of try failure
finally #Coupled with try, open a scope independent of try success
#Throw a custom-exception, defined as a class

No full explanation needed here, just see the magic by yourself:

  Doomed = aList[56]  # Error: IndexError: list index out of range #
except :

  Doomed = aList[56]
except IndexError:
  print("ERROR On Index")

except TypeError: # Error: TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects #
  print("ERROR On Type")

Because you sometimes (often?) can't manage all the cases combination that will define your context when computing,
these tools helps you to handle an unexpected and behave accordingly.
You can just let the except keyword alone, or differentiate your scopes to execute, depending on your error type
(You can find all errors types at the address :

By the way , with raise keyword, you will be able to create your own type of errors, using classes.
(cf further about classes and object creation).

import pymel.core.general
class UnitarySelectionError(BaseException):

def validSelection():
  currentSelection =, transforms=True)
    raise UnitarySelectionError()
    print currentSelection[0].name()

except UnitarySelectionError:
  print("The user have selected more than one transform")
  print("The user have selected nothing!!") #Reached because we do not handle an empty selection, so it is an IndexError at line17
  print("It's ok, you can go on") #Reached if your selection is one transform object)
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APyTA_11 : Referencing your work

APyTA_11 : Referencing your work

Referencing is crucial to fully express python usability and re-usability.
import #Record external reference (will execute rooted-code)
as #Allow you to overwrite a namespace(module) path
from #Allow import to access specific classes

Python allow you to create references to scripts, the same way you create external files in reference in Maya.
To do that, the notion of class and objects are extended to:
Modules : The file .py , which contains your code.
Packages : The folder containing the modules (therefore python files), but only if it have a specific file called
Theses notions will helps you to setup a full framework hierarchy very easily ! (cf notions of Namespaces in other languages).

When referencing to your external script file, you have to specify the relative path of all your packages (folder), concatenated by '.'
Python gives you four main ways of doing that, here for example creating a polyCube:

import pymel.core.modeling as pmc
from pymel.core.modeling import polyCube
from pymel.core.modeling import *
import pymel.core.modeling

Personally, I recommend the last one, (the uglier I know), for more explanations please refer to my post on Acronyms are evil.
Be precise. And anyway, do NOT use import *, as it really is evil (collapse all paths and is a great risk of overwriting functions or misunderstanding).
Remember the notion of scope in the previous lesson ?
Well, you can also consider a module like a scope too, and the same for the package (containing in the, often empty) can store also piece of codes, more often used for putting recurrent import in the modules of your package.

If you want to import again a module (for example after modifying your module), you can use the reload() statement.
But, your old objects, variables, will not be updated (be aware of retro-compatibility glitches).
Sadly I must confess that I advice you to quit Maya (or any context that embed python) when you change your code.
Could be boring, but believe me, you will avoid some issues like that !
When I was alpha-testing videogames, the "teleporting" cheat-tools to avoid hours of gameplay while testing a end of level was strictly forbidden.
I kept this experience in mind, and my advice is to test a feature in REAL condition.
It's boring, it's often a long process, but you will avoid so many bugs and unexpected context if you do not "play the game"
or re-generate each time a user roleplay (and interface interaction).

With the previous snippet, you may have noticed that the path to references scripts are not OS-formatted path, like the windows "C:\MyFolder".
This is because python have some preferences, as starting points to do its searches.
You can print them, and add yours with that lines:

import sys
print sys.path
#Now you can type "import YourModule" (at condition that file was in  YourPackageFullPath\

print sys.modules #Show all modules loaded in RAM (import)

In windows, you can also change that value before python starts using Environment Variable
(From StartMenu, or typing the command "SETX PYTHONPATH YourPackageFullPath")
In Maya, if a module called "" are in sys.path, Maya will execute the code inside
(unless there is also a script called userSetup.mel, which always have priority).
Also, if there is a module called "", python will execute its code at startup.

Notice that if you want to execute a module outside of Maya (just with a python commandline), for batching process for example,
You have to execute this line (still in windows): C:\Program Files\Autodesk\Maya2012\bin\mayapy.exe "C:\...\"
But, in, you have to but a specific block of code to tells python what to execute inside:

if __name__ == "__main__":
  print("Launching application")
  #INSERT here what you want to execute when running your command.

Notice that mayapy.exe is the python executable embedded with maya, but can be run separately.
But you can't do the same thing in MotionBuilder for example, and sometimes you will need to have your own independent python on an "empty" client machine.
So you will have to install it from downloading in the website. But be sure (avoid issues) to have the same version (in your Maya for example).
You can know its version by printing the sys.version

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APyTA_10: Function mechanics, arguments and scope notions.

APyTA_10:  Function mechanics, arguments and scope notions.

Main keywords for defining functions logic are :
def #Define a function (or method)
print #Display a value in current output (sys.stdout)
del #Remove the variable from the RAM
pass #Exit the scope, doing nothing (useful to tag a scope into a TODO status, because python wants always something if you create a scope (by ':')
return #Allow the function to return a computed result, the best way to communicate a value through a scope.
class #Create an object (a future APyTA will explain that)
assert #Can authenticate your function arguments

As we already seen some function snippets, let's dig into assert keyword:
Its purpose is to help you validate your given argument in a scope of a function.
Python polymorphism could be quite scary, and when you have data from the 'outside world', you may want to be really sure of the type of the objects you will have to deal with:

import pymel.core.nodetypes, pymel.core.modeling, pymel.core.datatypes

def raiseObject(_OffsetZ, _theObject, _TypeChecking=False): #Putting a value like that MyArg=Value are called Optional Argument (Syntax law force optionnal arguments to be ther LAST ones).
    assert type(_OffsetZ) is float, "_OffsetZ is not an float: %s" % `_OffsetZ` #I kept these string formating (usable also with print) to show you them but I'm not a big fan of it.
    assert type(_theObject) is pymel.core.nodetypes.Transform, "_theObject is not a Transform: %s" % `_theObject`

  _theObject.setTranslation( pymel.core.datatypes.Vector(y=_OffsetZ) ) #See how here I need _theObject of being a Transform ? .setTranslation( will be meaningless otherwise.

myCubeTranform  = pymel.core.modeling.polyCube()[0]
liftObj = raiseObject #Function are vars to. Usefull to create aliases.

raiseObject(5.0, "pCube1",True) # AssertionError: _theObject is not a Transform: 'pCube1' #
raiseObject(5.0, "pCube1")# AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'setTranslation' #   Excepected, we skip the assert part, but the core of the function compute with a wrong type
liftObj(5, myCubeTranform,True) # AssertionError: _OffsetZ is not an float: 5 #   but liftObj(5, myPolyCube)  could have worked
raiseObject(5.0, myCubeTranform,True) #OK#

For the validation of function arguments as a process in development, we can really modelize an Axis, from devs that check everything: every variables every time;  into those who delegates these tests to dev/user intelligence and API knowledge.
My advice is to be nearly at the middle of it. Python scripts are clear text file, readable, and easy understandable, so personally I don't not check often my arguments integrity.
Especially when you build a framework, with a lot of packages/modules navigation, your variable could be checked in chains through its living time if you implement an assert in every function/methods...
But, I always check my data when they are coming from a different context, I mean by that a user graphical interface (prompt, comboBox, etc.), when reading a file or accessing your selection (Does the user REALLY selected a joint ?), or any scene content (therefore, a "context stranger").

Well, in the last example, we will see how a function could be flexible in python, and dig into the notion of scope.
A SCOPE is the meaning of an new indentation (mandatory after a ':') , and represent a "living context" for all objects (variables) created in it.
The golden rule to remember is this tagging mechanic: when escaping a scope (therefore reaching a dedented line), the tags will be discarded (by the engine called Garbage collector).
When you create a variable in a scope (aka a level of indentation), your variable will 'live' through it, and 'die' when the scope die, so at its dedentation (there are exceptions, but the collector will always destroy your variables at the exit of a function/method).
We saw in looping lesson the 'for' and the 'while', but let's have a look of another loop type, without keyword this time, just a play with a function that can call itself:

def createCubes(DefaultName="Qube",MaxNumber=25):

  def createCubeAndGoOn():
    if len(<MaxNumber : #Like the while condition be REALLY SURE to reach your test unless it is infinite loop!
      #Here, VariableScopeRelated_tocreateCubesis still alive, as in any scope  'under' the first one (createCubes one)

createCubes(MaxNumber=10,DefaultName="Kube") #Creates 10 cubes

print VariableScopeRelated_tocreateCubes# Error: NameError: name 'VariableScopeRelated_tocreateCubes' is not defined #

Several comments on that one:
Please notice that you are allowed by python to create a function (and its scope) anywhere, and also in a class definition.
It is quite useful in the resistivity mode, which need often an starting function, and a recursive one.
Notice also that if you specify a keyword argument, you are no longer tied to the order of the argument.

Last, but not least, learn that you can define functions without specify arguments,  like that:

def doIt (*args):
  print type(args), args
doIt(1,"anything",1.0) #<type 'tuple'> (1, 'anything', 1.0)
def doIt2 (**Kwargs):
  print type(Kwargs),Kwargs
doIt2(arg1=2,arg2="anything") #<type 'dict'> {'arg1': 2, 'arg2': 'anything'}

*args: Tells python to pack all arguments into a TUPLE.
**Kwargs: Tells python to pack arguments into a DICT

Of course, you will to start the core of your function by analyzing the given tuple or dict.
... and that's all folks !


APyTA_09: Looping and forking, logic’s basics.

APyTA_09: Looping and forking, logic's basics.

Keywords are special statement and are strictly forbidden to overwrite (as a variable or function/method), and represent the Kernel of Python mechanics.
In the following APyTAs I will try to explain them all, regrouped by categories. Your can have dynamically the list like that:

import keyword
for currentKeyword in keyword.kwlist:

First let's have a quick look at the boolean keyword operator:
and #  (False and True) ==False (and because the first term is False, and' will not eval the second term)
or # (True or False) ==True (same mechanics here, 'or' will ignore second term if the first term is True)
not #Boolean unary operator  not True  False
is #Identity comparison (== is the equality comparison)

The most common snippet I can give to you here is a validation test to a user selection:

import pymel.core.general
MySelection =
if( len(MySelection) >0 and type(MySelection[0]) == pymel.core.nodetypes.Transform) :
  #Manage here your logic safely, do all operations available on a Transform object.
  print("Please select a transform object")

Looping is the basics for the logic building in script, so let's enumerate all their keyword related:
if #Open a scope if the condition is True
else #Coupled with if, open a scope if the condition is False
elif #Syntaxic contraction of else if
for #Create an iterative loop
in #Create a temp variable (the current element) to loop into a list
while #Create a conditional loop
break #Exit the current scope
continue #Go to next scope (or iteration in loop)

import pymel.core
Mode = 1

  for i in range(MAX_NUMBER):
  while(len(<=MAX_NUMBER):  #The loop will stop when your condition is True. So be REALLY SURE to reach it!
    obj = pymel.core.modeling.polyCube()
    if obj[0]._name =="pCube6":
    elif obj[0]._name =="pCube10": #When reaching this test, the while exit, and you have just 10 cube created.
    print("Creating:"+obj[0]._name) #This sentence will not be printed for pCube6 due to the continue statement.
  print("Unsupported mode")

My advice is to avoid the 'while' looping when it is possible.
In the most common cases, believe me, you can enumerate the range of your objects-to-evaluate (It is often your scene objects, or part of it, filtered on some criteria).
The danger of the 'while' looping is a misunderstanding of your object manipulation (or about Maya self-refresh computation), and not anticipate a context-change (like Maya auto-renaming to avoid names conflict).

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APyTA_08: The devil as a string.

APyTA_08: The devil as a string.

I may have had warned you about the danger of dealing with the name of the object instead of the object itself but...
Let's talk a little about strings, as you will have to often manipulate them (renaming and finding stuff mostly).
First rule : a string is.... a list of string (of one single letter) !

print mySalutation, type(mySalutation) #Hello_World <type 'str'>
print mySalutation[6] #W
print type(mySalutation[6])#<type 'str'>

Unlike other languages, string is a basic class in Python and have a lot of useful methods.
Let's see examples of the very powerful renaming tools including in python which comes very handy:

print mySalutationFriendly #Hi_World_!
if mySalutation.startswith("Hello"): #Testing a start (you can also do a endswith)
  print mySalutation+"_"+str(42) #Hello_World_42
  print mySalutation+"_"+str(42).zfill(5) #Hello_World_00042

Please notice this replace methods does NOT change your variable content, so if you want to store it,
you will have to re-affect your variable with the result (And remember you can cascade the methods as in any classes)
Python is capable of polymorphism, but is STRONGLY typed. That mainly means for you that you can't concat numbers (int,float) and strings,
for example when printing a variable , so you have to explicitly convert your number as a string as follow: print("MyVarAsNumber="+str(MyVarAsNumber))

If you want to search if a substring is into your string, 'in' will do that perfectly, and split allow you to return a list of cut string, defining a separator.

if "_" in mySalutationFriendly:
  myList = mySalutationFriendly.split("_") #You can split on any character(s).
  print myList #['Hi', 'World', '!']

If you want to add special characters into your string, you will have to enter a specific code with backslash: \n or newline, \t for tabulation.
For including a backslash into a string, you have to escape it with another backslash: \\  and at last, for including a quote, you also have to escape it : \" .
But Python have anticipated that, and as he have three different string constructor: quote ', double-quote " and triple-double quote """, you can trick your string with that easily:
"""  Hello, currently my pseudo is "JohnDoe", but some of my friends call me "Mister '<tag>'  "  """

Finally, if you want more power to match a pattern into a string, you will need the 're' module, like that:

<pre>cameraName ="SHOT-Aa_C001_V01"
import re
print re.findall(r'\d+', cameraName) #['001', '01']
pattern = "SHOT-[A-Z][a-z]_C[0-9][0-9][0-9]_V[0-9][0-9]"
print re.match(pattern,"SHOT-aA_C001_V01")!=None   #False
print re.match(pattern,"SHOT_AA_C001_V01")!=None  #False
print re.match(pattern,"SHOT_AA_C01_V01")!=None  #False
print re.match(pattern,"SHOT_AA_C01_V0")!=None  #False
print re.match(pattern,cameraName,)!=None  #True

So, for pattern matching, use the re module and search a little bit more about REGEXP (Regular Expression). I will make a post on that module later anyway.
About special characters, be warn that string will handle ONLY ASCII letters.
So if you need to be able to manage special characters, like accentuation, you will need to use unicode (A next APyTA will deal with that too)

Also, dealing with path could be really painful.
AFAIK, you can write a path in three major styles:

<pre>MayaPath = "C:\\Program Files\\Autodesk\\Maya2012\\bin\\maya.exe"
MayaPath = r"C:\Program Files\Autodesk\Maya2012\bin\maya.exe" # r is for RAW, tels python to take your string "ASITIS"
MayaPath = "C:/Program Files/Autodesk/Maya2012/bin/maya.exe"

The last one is linux-friendly, do not care about escaping  backslash,
BUT I shamefully use the first one... because I mostly work on windows,
and because path are often computed from parts and pieces coming from your app, other tools, etc... and you have to be really sure they are formated the same to concat them...

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